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Article: Metal casting

Metal casting

Expendable mold casting methods

  • Expendable mold casting includes sand, plastic, shell, plaster, and investment (lost-wax technique) moldings.
  • These methods use temporary, non-reusable molds.
  • Widely used for casting complex shapes in industries such as automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.
  • Offers cost-effective production of small to medium-sized batches.

Non-expendable mold casting methods

  • Non-expendable mold casting does not require reforming the mold after each production cycle.
  • Includes permanent, die, centrifugal, and continuous casting methods.
  • Improves repeatability and delivers near net shape results.

Specific casting methods

  • Sand casting is one of the most popular and simplest types of casting.
  • Loam molding is used for producing large symmetrical objects like cannon and church bells.
  • Plaster mold casting uses plaster of paris as a mold material.
  • Shell molding provides a finer surface finish compared to sand casting.
  • Investment casting, also known as lost-wax casting, is suitable for producing net shape components with high accuracy and repeatability.

Casting theory

  • Casting is a solidification process that controls most properties of the casting.
  • Casting defects, such as gas porosity and solidification shrinkage, occur during solidification.
  • Cooling curves are important for controlling the quality of a casting.
  • Chvorinov's rule calculates the local solidification time of a casting.
  • The gating system conveys the liquid material to the mold and controls various factors.
  • Shrinkage occurs during solidification and can be controlled through directional solidification, risers, and chills.

Macrostructure and casting process simulation

  • The grain macrostructure in ingots and most castings have three distinct regions: the chill zone, columnar zone, and equiaxed zone.
  • Casting process simulation uses numerical methods to calculate cast component quality, including mold filling, solidification, and cooling.
  • Simulation accurately describes a cast component's quality before production starts, reducing the need for pre-production sampling.

Metal casting Data Sources

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