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Article: Metalworking


Historical Development of Metalworking

  • Oldest evidence of metalworking found in northern Iraq from 8,700 BCE
  • Metalworking in the Americas dates back to 4000-5000 BCE in Wisconsin
  • Oldest gold artifacts date back to 4450 BCE in Bulgaria
  • Metalworking in Mehrgarh, South Asia between 7000 and 3300 BCE
  • Metalworking known in ancient civilizations like Egypt, India, Israel, and the Maya
  • Precious metals gained value and rules for ownership and trade were established
  • Skilled metalworkers created adornments, religious artifacts, and trade instruments
  • Techniques like granulation were shared among ancient cultures
  • Metal objects became more common and complex, leading to the growth of metalworking skills

Evolution and Categorization of Metalworking Processes

  • Metalworking techniques evolved over time
  • Skills related to extracting metal ores from the earth developed
  • Metalsmiths became important members of society
  • Availability of metals and metalsmiths greatly influenced civilizations
  • Metalworking is essential for industries, technology, and global trade
  • Modern metalworking processes categorized into forming, cutting, and joining processes
  • Forming processes shape metals into desired forms
  • Cutting processes involve removing material from metals
  • Joining processes combine multiple metal parts together
  • Machine shops have specialized tools for precise metalworking

Advancements in Materials and Techniques

  • Copper and tin were important metals in early metalworking
  • Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, had superior properties for tools and weapons
  • Bronze was widely used until the advent of iron
  • Metalworking advancements spread globally, with different regions emphasizing different metals
  • European colonization brought metalworking for tools and weapons to the Americas

Specific Metalworking Processes

  • Bulk forming processes involve using heat or pressure to deform the workpiece
  • Sheet (and tube) forming processes apply mechanical force at room temperature
  • Cutting involves removing excess material to achieve a specified geometry
  • Chip producing processes, such as machining, are commonly used for cutting
  • Milling is a complex shaping process that removes material to form the final shape
  • Turning is a metal cutting process that produces a cylindrical surface using a single point tool
  • Threading processes include cutting threads with a tap or die
  • Grinding is an abrasive process to remove material from the workpiece
  • Soldering is a joining process that occurs below 450°C (842°F)
  • Riveting is an ancient metalwork joining process
  • Mechanical fixings, such as screws and bolts, are used for joining metals

Associated Processes and Heat Treatment

  • Heat treatment alters metal properties such as strength, ductility, and hardness
  • Common heat treatment processes include annealing, precipitation hardening, quenching, and tempering
  • Mechanical and thermal treatments can be combined for better properties
  • Plating and thermal spraying are common surface-treatment techniques

Metalworking Data Sources

Reference URL
Knowledge Graph

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