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Article: De facto

De facto

De facto in Jurisprudence and Technical Standards

  • Jurisprudence refers to practices not defined by law.
  • De facto standard is a dominant position achieved by tradition, enforcement, or market dominance.
  • Technical standards can be voluntary or obligatory.
  • De facto standards are used to express dominant standards.

De facto in Government and Culture

Subgroup: National languages

  • Some countries have de facto national languages without official, de jure national languages.
  • Examples include Lebanon and Morocco with Arabic as an official language and French as a de facto language.
  • New Zealand has Māori and New Zealand Sign Language as official languages, with English as a de facto language.
  • Russian was the de facto official language of the former Soviet Union before being declared de jure in 1990.
  • Hong Kong and Macau have English and Portuguese as official languages, with Cantonese as the de facto standard.

Subgroup: Governance and sovereignty

  • De facto government is one where sovereignty attributes have been transferred by usurpation.
  • De facto leaders assume authority regardless of lawful means.
  • Not all dictators are de facto rulers, as some gain formal and legal power.
  • De facto governments in Argentina were analyzed under a doctrine until nullified in 1994.

De facto in Borders

  • De facto boundaries of a country are defined by the area where the government enforces its laws.
  • De facto boundaries may differ from de jure boundaries.
  • Recognition of de facto borders can impact international relations.
  • De facto boundaries can arise in cases of border disputes.
  • They may also occur in unpopulated areas where the border was never formally established.
  • The exact position of the agreed border may be unclear in some cases.
  • De facto boundaries can also exist between provinces or subdivisions of a federal state.

De facto in Racial Discrimination and Segregation

  • De facto racist policies and practices in South Africa predated the formal start of apartheid.
  • Racial discrimination and segregation outside of the South were de facto practices in the United States until the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Jim Crow laws legally enforced racial segregation in the American South from the 1870s until 1964.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended legal racial segregation in the United States.
  • De facto discrimination refers to discrimination that is not legally enforced.

De facto in State of War, Relationships, Monopoly, and Intellectual Property

  • The phrase 'de facto state of war' describes aggressive military actions between two nations without a formal declaration of war.
  • De facto relationships in Australia and New Zealand are legally recognized and provide similar rights and benefits as marriage.
  • A de facto monopoly occurs when one supplier dominates a market to the extent that competitors cannot compete or survive.
  • De facto technology refers to privately held intellectual property and know-how.
  • Antitrust laws aim to eliminate de facto monopolies.

De facto Data Sources

Reference URL
Knowledge Graph

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