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Article: Welding


Definition and Process of Welding

  • Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials using high heat to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool, causing fusion.
  • It is distinct from brazing and soldering as it melts the base metal.
  • A filler material is typically added to the joint to form a pool of molten material that cools to form a strong joint.
  • Pressure may also be used to produce a weld.
  • Welding requires a shield to protect the metals from contamination or oxidation.

Energy Sources for Welding

  • Gas flame, electric arc, laser, electron beam, friction, and ultrasound can be used as energy sources for welding.
  • Different energy sources have different applications and advantages.
  • Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) are popular methods.
  • Welding can be performed in various environments, including open air, underwater, and in outer space.
  • Precautions are necessary to avoid hazards such as burns, electric shock, and exposure to poisonous gases and radiation.

Historical Development of Welding

  • Forge welding was the only welding process until the end of the 19th century.
  • Arc welding and oxy-fuel welding were among the first processes to develop.
  • Manual methods like shielded metal arc welding became popular.
  • Semi-automatic and automatic processes such as gas metal arc welding and flux-cored arc welding were developed.
  • Laser beam welding, electron beam welding, and friction stir welding were invented in the latter half of the 20th century.

Early Examples of Welding

  • The history of joining metals goes back several millennia.
  • Glaucus of Chios is credited with inventing iron welding in ancient Greece.
  • Forge welding was used in the construction of the Iron pillar of Delhi in India.
  • Middle Ages brought advances in forge welding techniques.
  • Vannoccio Biringuccio published a book that included descriptions of the forging operation.

Advancements in Welding Techniques

  • Sir Humphry Davy discovered the short-pulse electrical arc in 1800.
  • Russian scientist Vasily Petrov created the continuous electric arc in 1802.
  • Metal electrodes were invented in the late 1800s.
  • Coated metal electrodes and three-phase electric arc welding were proposed.
  • Resistance welding and thermite welding were developed in the late 19th century.

Welding Data Sources

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