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Article: Volcanic pipe

Volcanic pipe

Formation and Characteristics of Volcanic Pipes

  • Volcanic pipes form from violent eruptions of deep-origin volcanoes.
  • These volcanoes originate at least three times as deep as most other volcanoes.
  • The resulting magma pushed toward the surface is high in magnesium and volatile compounds.
  • As the magma rises, the volatile compounds transform to gaseous phase due to decreasing pressure.
  • The sudden expansion propels the magma upward at rapid speeds, resulting in a supersonic Plinian eruption.
  • Kimberlite pipes and lamproite pipes are two types of volcanic pipes.

Kimberlite Pipes

  • Kimberlite pipes eject a column of overlying material directly over the magma column.
  • They do not form large above-ground elevations like typical volcanoes.
  • A low ring of ejecta, known as a tuff ring, forms around a bowl-shaped depression over the magma column.
  • Over time, the tuff ring may erode back into the bowl, leveling out the depression.
  • Kimberlite pipes are the source of most of the world's commercial diamond production.

Lamproite Pipes

  • Lamproite pipes operate similarly to kimberlite pipes.
  • The boiling water and volatile compounds in the magma act corrosively on the overlying rock.
  • This results in a broader cone of eviscerated rock and the formation of a tuff ring.
  • The broad cone is then filled with volcanic ash and materials.
  • Finally, the degassed magma is pushed upward, filling the cone and creating a funnel-shaped deposit of volcanic material.

Examples of Volcanic Pipes

  • Udachnaya pipe: A diamond mine in Sakha Republic, Russia.
  • Elliott County Kimberlite: A geological formation.
  • Lake Ellen Kimberlite: Another geological formation.
  • [Additional examples can be added here]


  • Kresten, Peter; Troll, Valentin R. (2018). The Alnö Carbonatite Complex, central Sweden. Cham: Springer. ISBN978-3-319-90224-1. OCLC1046460156.
  • American Museum of Natural History. The Nature of Diamonds. Retrieved March 17, 2005. Archived version.
  • Tilling (1985). Volcanoes (excerpt). United States Geological Survey: Special Interest Publication. Retrieved March 17, 2005.
  • [Additional references can be added here]

Volcanic pipe Data Sources

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