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Article: Casting


History and Types of Casting

  • Metal casting has been used throughout history to make tools, weapons, and religious objects.
  • Metal casting originated in Southern Asia, specifically in China, India, and Pakistan.
  • Southern Asia traditions and religions heavily relied on statue and relic castings made from a copper alloy laced with lead.
  • The majority of castings in early civilizations were simple one to two piece molds made from stone or ceramics.
  • The lost wax process, which originated in ancient Mesopotamia, allowed for more intricate designs in castings.
  • Casting is a manufacturing process that involves pouring liquid metal into a mold.
  • Metal casting is the most common type of casting in metalworking.
  • Plaster, concrete, and plastic resin can also be cast using molds.
  • Resin casting is a method used for casting plaster, concrete, or plastic resin.
  • Different materials and treatments can be used to give the appearance of metal or stone in plaster or concrete castings.

Metal Casting

  • Metal casting involves heating metal until it becomes liquid and pouring it into a mold.
  • The mold includes the desired shape, as well as runners and risers to allow the metal to fill the mold.
  • The solidified part, or casting, is recovered from the mold and excess material is removed.
  • Metal casting is commonly used in the production of various metal objects and components.
  • It is a versatile and widely used manufacturing process in metalworking.


  • Fettling is the process of removing irregularities and unwanted bits from raw castings.
  • It involves cutting, grinding, shaving, or sanding the castings.
  • Fettling can add significantly to the cost of the final product.
  • Robotic processes have been developed to automate some parts of the fettling process.
  • Designers of molds aim to minimize fettling through mold shape and material selection.

Casting Process Simulation

  • Casting process simulation uses numerical methods to predict cast component quality.
  • It considers mold filling, solidification, cooling, and mechanical properties of the casting.
  • Simulation helps in designing the casting system and optimizing energy, material, and tooling usage.
  • Commercial software programs are available for casting process simulation.
  • It is regarded as one of the most important innovations in casting technology in the last 50 years.

Lost-Wax Casting

  • Lost-wax casting has a long history dating back to ancient times.
  • The early history of lost-wax casting can be traced back to South Asia.
  • Adriaen de Vries, a renowned sculptor in bronze, played a significant role in the development of lost-wax casting.
  • Lost-wax casting was also practiced in Bronze Age China.
  • Lost-wax casting has been used to create various types of artifacts and sculptures.
  • Lost-wax casting involves creating a wax model, encasing it in a mold, and then melting the wax to create a cavity.
  • Different materials can be used for the mold, such as plaster or ceramic.
  • The molten metal is poured into the mold and allowed to cool and solidify.
  • The mold is then broken or removed to reveal the final cast object.
  • Lost-wax casting allows for intricate and detailed designs to be reproduced accurately.
  • Lost-wax casting is commonly used in the production of jewelry and decorative objects.
  • It is also used in the creation of sculptures and artworks.
  • The automotive and aerospace industries utilize lost-wax casting for the production of complex metal components.
  • Dental prosthetics and medical implants can be manufactured using the lost-wax casting process.
  • Archaeologists and historians rely on lost-wax casting to replicate and study ancient artifacts.
  • Lost-wax casting allows for the production of highly detailed and intricate designs.
  • It offers a high level of accuracy and repeatability.
  • The process can accommodate a wide range of materials, including various metals and alloys.
  • However, lost-wax casting can be time-consuming and labor-intensive.
  • Large-scale production may require additional steps and equipment.
  • Computer-aided design (CAD) and analysis have revolutionized the lost-wax casting process.
  • Advanced technologies, such as 3D printing, have been integrated into the casting industry.
  • Research and development efforts are focused on improving the efficiency and sustainability of the lost-wax casting process.
  • New materials and alloys are being explored to expand the applications of lost-wax casting.
  • Collaborations between artists, engineers, and scientists are driving innovation in the field of lost-wax casting.

Casting Data Sources

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