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Article: Art Deco

Art Deco

Definition and Origins of Art Deco

  • Art Deco is a style of visual arts, architecture, and product design that originated in Paris in the 1910s.
  • It flourished in the United States and Europe during the 1920s to early 1930s.
  • Art Deco influenced the design of bridges, buildings, ships, furniture, and everyday objects.
  • It combined elements of Modernist avant-garde, French historic design, and non-Western motifs.
  • The movement represented luxury, glamour, and faith in social and technological progress.
  • Art Deco got its name from the 1925 Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris.
  • The term 'arts décoratifs' was first used in France in 1858.
  • The emergence of Art Deco was closely connected with the rise in status of decorative artists.
  • The Société des artistes décorateurs (Society of Decorative Artists) was founded in 1901.
  • French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts.

International Influence and Legacy of Art Deco

  • Art Deco was a truly international style.
  • The movement's dominance ended with the beginning of World War II.
  • The Empire State Building, Chrysler Building, and other buildings in New York City are examples of Art Deco architecture.
  • The style gradually became more subdued during the Great Depression, leading to the development of Streamline Moderne.
  • New materials like chrome plating, stainless steel, and plastic were introduced in the 1930s.
  • The term 'art déco' did not appear in print until 1966.
  • It was first used in the title of an exhibition held by the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris.
  • The term gained currency in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published a major academic book on Art Deco.
  • In its time, Art Deco was also referred to as 'style moderne,' 'modernistic,' and 'style contemporain.'
  • It was not recognized as a distinct and homogenous style until later.
  • Art Deco represented a shift towards functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture.
  • The International Style and Mid-century modern followed the decline of Art Deco.
  • The style is associated with luxury materials, exquisite craftsmanship, and the idea of progress.
  • Art Deco influenced various industries, including fashion, jewelry, and interior design.
  • Today, Art Deco is recognized as an important and influential art movement.

Vienna Secession and Wiener Werkstätte Influence

  • Architects of Vienna Secession, especially Josef Hoffmann, influenced Art Deco.
  • Stoclet Palace in Brussels by Josef Hoffmann was a prototype of Art Deco style.
  • Wiener Werkstätte, founded by Hoffmann, was an association of craftsmen and designers.
  • Compagnie des arts français, created in 1919, brought together leading French Art Deco designers.
  • Notable buildings: Secession Building in Vienna, Church of St. Leopold in Vienna, Austrian Postal Savings Bank in Vienna, Stoclet Palace in Brussels.

Influence of New Materials and Technologies

  • Reinforced concrete was key to the development of Art Deco.
  • Auguste Perret pioneered the use of reinforced concrete in buildings.
  • Perret also used ceramic tiles for protection and decoration.
  • Plate glass and aluminum were new technologies used in Art Deco.
  • These materials allowed for larger windows and lightweight furniture.
  • Théâtre des Champs-Élysées by Auguste Perret was the first landmark Art Deco building in Paris.
  • Perret's building had clean rectangular form, geometric decoration, and straight lines.
  • The theatre's décor included high reliefs, dome, paintings, and an Art Deco curtain.
  • It became a venue for Ballets Russes performances.
  • Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage became leading Art Deco architects in Paris.

Influences on Art Deco and Decorative Elements

  • Cubism had an important influence on Art Deco.
  • Cubist designs were showcased at the 1912 Salon d'Automne.
  • Geometric forms of Cubism were incorporated into Art Deco architecture and sculpture.
  • Cubist artists like Picasso and Csaky contributed to the development of Art Deco.
  • Cubism became a common language for decorative artists during the Art Deco era.
  • Paul Cézanne's influence on simplification of forms.
  • Section d'Or artists' more accessible works in 1912.
  • André Vera's rejection of Art Nouveau forms.
  • La Maison Cubiste architectural installation.
  • Cubist influence on Art Deco.
  • Ballets Russes influences.
  • Rococo style and its influences.
  • Beaux Arts architecture and its influences.
  • Louis XVI style and its influences.
  • Neoclassical style and its influences.
  • Ancient Egyptian art and its influences.
  • Mesopotamian art and its influences.
  • Pre-Columbian art and its influences.
  • Sub-Saharan African art and its influences.
  • Geometric elements and forms in Art Deco.
  • Reinforced-concrete buildings and the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées.
  • Lotus flowers as a decorative motif.
  • Ziggurat of Ur and its influences.
  • Mayan art and its influences.
  • Art Nouveau and its influences on Art Deco.
  • Western Union Building and its Mesopotamian influences.
  • Interior detail of 450 Sutter Street and its Pre-Columbian influences.
  • Sub-Saharan African influences on Art Deco.
  • Mascaron for a fountain by Henri Navarre.
  • Primitivism, Futurism, Orphism, Functionalism, and Modernism influenced Art Deco.
  • Sonia Delaunay created dress models in an abstract and geometric style.
  • Louis Barrilet designed Cubist-like stained-glass windows.
  • Art Deco borrowed from Fauvism, featuring clashing colors and designs

Art Deco Data Sources

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