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Article: Silver


Properties of Silver

  • Appearance: lustrous white metal
  • Standard atomic weight: 107.8682±0.0002
  • Boiling point: 2435K (2162°C, 3924°F)
  • Density (near r.t.): 10.49 g/cm
  • Thermal expansion: 18.9 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25°C)
  • Ionisation energies: 1st: 731.0 kJ/mol
  • Thermal conductivity: 429 W/(m⋅K)
  • Electrical resistivity: 15.87 nΩ⋅m (at 20°C)
  • Magnetic ordering: diamagnetic
  • Young's modulus: 83 GPa
  • Ductility: can be drawn into a wire one atom wide
  • Similar properties to copper and gold
  • Soft and malleable transition metal
  • Face-centered cubic lattice structure
  • Brilliant, white, metallic luster

Uses of Silver

  • Bullion coins and investment medium
  • Solar panels and water filtration
  • Jewellery and high-value tableware
  • Electrical contacts and conductors
  • Specialized mirrors and window coatings

Isotopes of Silver

  • Two stable isotopes: 107Ag and 109Ag
  • 107Ag more abundant (51.839% natural abundance)
  • Atomic weight: 107.8682(2) u
  • Produced in stars via s-process and supernovas via r-process
  • Range in relative atomic mass from 92.950u to 129.950u

Reactivity and Deterioration of Silver

  • Silver does not react with air, even at high temperatures
  • It is considered a noble metal, along with gold
  • Silver reacts with sulfur and its compounds, forming silver sulfide
  • It dissolves readily in hot concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid
  • Silver readily dissolves in aqueous solutions of cyanide
  • Tarnishing is one of the main forms of deterioration in silver artifacts
  • Long-term immersion in salt water can lead to the formation of silver chloride
  • Reaction with nitrate ions or oxygen can also cause deterioration
  • Fresh silver chloride is pale yellow and becomes purplish on exposure to light
  • The presence of copper in ancient silver can be used for dating artifacts

Silver Compounds and their Uses

  • Silver compounds are used in photography to bleach silver images
  • Silver cyanide solutions are used in electroplating of silver
  • Silver nitrate is a versatile precursor to many other silver compounds
  • It is used in organic synthesis for deprotection and oxidations
  • Silver nitrate can bind alkenes reversibly and has been used for separation

Silver Data Sources

Reference URL
Knowledge Graph

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