Skip to content


Your cart is empty

Article: Geology


Geological Material

  • Majority of geological data comes from research on solid Earth materials
  • Meteorites and other extraterrestrial natural materials are also studied
  • Geologists study the mineralogical composition of rocks
  • Geology determines the relative ages of rocks
  • Geochemistry determines the absolute ages of rocks


  • Minerals are naturally occurring elements and compounds
  • Each mineral has distinct physical properties
  • Luster is the quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral
  • Color is used to identify minerals, although impurities can change color
  • Streak is the color of the mark left by a mineral when scratched


  • Rocks are naturally occurring solid masses or aggregates of minerals
  • Most research in geology is associated with the study of rocks
  • There are three major types of rock: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
  • The rock cycle illustrates the relationships among these types of rock
  • Organic matter is linked mainly to organic-rich sedimentary rocks

Unlithified Material

  • Geologists study unlithified materials that lie above the bedrock
  • This study is often known as Quaternary geology
  • Superficial deposits are a type of unlithified material
  • Quaternary period is the most recent period of geologic time
  • Unlithified materials provide information about recent geological history

Whole-Earth Structure

  • Plate tectonics is the major subtopic under whole-Earth structure
  • Earth's lithosphere is separated into tectonic plates
  • Plates move across the solid upper mantle called the asthenosphere
  • Plate movement is coupled with mantle convection
  • Plate tectonics explains geological features such as mid-ocean ridges and arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes.

Geology Data Sources

Reference URL
Knowledge Graph

Read more


Definition, Importance, and Scope of Geometry Branch of mathematics concerned with properties of space Focuses on distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures One of the oldest branches ...

Read more


History and Practice of Genuflection Genuflection introduced by Alexander the Great in 328 BC Senators in the Byzantine Empire required to genuflect to the emperor Medieval Europeans showed respect...

Read more