Diamonds in Meteorites and Extraterrestrial Materials
- Nanodiamonds found in primitive meteorites indicate they came from outside the Solar System.
- Nanodiamonds make up about 3% of the carbon in meteorites.
- Silicon carbide and graphite grains in meteorites also have anomalous isotopic patterns.
- Nanodiamonds in meteorites can contain noble gases of presolar origin.
- Techniques like atom probe tomography can examine individual nanodiamond grains.
- Diamonds found in meteorites provide evidence of extraterrestrial diamonds.
- Nanodiamonds have been discovered in meteorites from multiple locations across three continents.
- Ureilites, a type of meteorite, contain diamonds.
- Extraterrestrial nanodiamonds have been studied in relation to the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis.
- Diamond inclusions in a ureilite meteorite suggest the presence of a large planetary body.
Diamond Formation in Space and Planets
- Nanodiamonds are close to molecular size, containing about 1800 carbon atoms.
- Diamonds are more stable than graphite at very small sizes due to surface energy.
- Nanodiamonds can be found alongside other forms of carbon like fullerenes.
- Ureilites, carbon-rich meteorites, often contain diamonds formed by shock events.
- Larger diamonds found in Almahata Sitta meteorite suggest a protoplanetary origin.
- Infrared observations show that carbon-containing molecules are widespread in space.
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and diamondoids are found in space.
- Dust in space may contain up to 10 quadrillion diamondoids per gram.
- The interior of Uranus and Neptune may contain huge quantities of diamonds.
- Extreme pressure can separate carbon from methane, allowing diamond formation.
- Experimental results suggest diamond rain and convection in Neptune's interior.
- Stars with high carbon-to-oxygen ratios may have planets composed mostly of carbides.
- Silicon carbide is a rare mineral on Earth but could be common on carbon-rich planets.
- Carbide planets may have different thermal properties than silicate planets.
- PSR J1719-1438 b, a planet orbiting a pulsar, may be composed of dense carbides.
- The thermal conductivity and expansivity of carbides differ from silicates.
- Uranus and Neptune have been suggested to have an ice layer that could contain diamonds.
- Methane in Neptune may be crushed into diamonds under high pressure.
- Solid diamonds have been observed raining on Uranus and Neptune.
- Experiments have concluded that diamonds can form in the atmosphere of Neptune.
- Laser-compressed hydrocarbons at planetary interior conditions can lead to diamond formation.
Diamonds in Stars and Beyond
- Diamonds have been proposed to exist in carbon-rich stars, particularly white dwarfs.
- Carbonado, a polycrystalline mix of diamond, graphite, and amorphous carbon, is present in stars.
- Diamonds in stars could come from supernovae and white dwarfs.
- The white dwarf BPM 37093, located in the constellation Centaurus, may have a diamond core.
- BPM 37093 is one of the largest diamonds in the universe.
- A diamond planet that orbits a pulsar has been discovered.
- Super-Earth planets have been found to have a mineralogy that includes diamonds.
- The mineral moissanite, a form of silicon carbide, is considered a rock-forming material.
- SiC (silicon carbide) has been studied for its thermal expansion properties in the deep interiors of carbide exoplanets.
- The presence of diamonds on a super-Earth planet has been questioned and may not be accurate.
Diamond-like Glass and Other Diamond-related Discoveries
- A diamond-like star has been created in the lab.
- Diamond-like glass has properties similar to diamond.
- It is made by compressing carbon-based materials.
- This glass could have various applications in technology.
- The creation of diamond-like glass helps in understanding diamond formation.
- The Center for Astrophysics highlights the discovery of a massive diamond.
- This diamond is the largest known in the galaxy.
- It was found in a distant region of space.
- The diamond's size and rarity make it a unique find.
- This discovery adds to our understanding of diamonds beyond Earth.
- Carbonado and Framesite are mysterious types of diamonds.
- Their origins are still not fully understood.
- Carbonado is believed to have formed in outer space.
- Framesite is thought to have originated from meteorite impacts.
- Scientists are studying these diamonds to uncover their unique formation processes.
Mineral Evolution and Co-evolution of Life and Rocks
- Before the formation of the Solar System, a small number of minerals, including diamonds and olivine, were present.
- Stars, rich in carbon, may have formed small diamonds at higher temperatures than any other known mineral.
- The diversity of minerals has changed over time as conditions have changed.
- The history of mineral formation was explored in a paper by Robert Hazen and colleagues at the Carnegie Institution.
- The paper is titled 'Mineral evolution' and was published in 2008.
- Rocks and minerals undergo evolutionary processes.
- Mineral evolution is the study of these changes over time.
- The Earth's environment and geological processes influence mineral evolution.
- Understanding mineral evolution helps in predicting mineral occurrences.
- This field of study provides insights into Earth's geological history.
- Life and rocks on Earth may have co-evolved.
- The presence of certain minerals influenced the development of life.
- Rocks provided the necessary elements for life to thrive.
- Life, in turn, affected the composition and formation of rocks.
- The interaction between life and rocks is a complex and interconnected process.
Extraterrestrial diamonds Data Sources