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Article: Extraterrestrial diamonds

Extraterrestrial diamonds

Diamonds in Meteorites and Extraterrestrial Materials

  • Nanodiamonds found in primitive meteorites indicate they came from outside the Solar System.
  • Nanodiamonds make up about 3% of the carbon in meteorites.
  • Silicon carbide and graphite grains in meteorites also have anomalous isotopic patterns.
  • Nanodiamonds in meteorites can contain noble gases of presolar origin.
  • Techniques like atom probe tomography can examine individual nanodiamond grains.
  • Diamonds found in meteorites provide evidence of extraterrestrial diamonds.
  • Nanodiamonds have been discovered in meteorites from multiple locations across three continents.
  • Ureilites, a type of meteorite, contain diamonds.
  • Extraterrestrial nanodiamonds have been studied in relation to the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis.
  • Diamond inclusions in a ureilite meteorite suggest the presence of a large planetary body.

Diamond Formation in Space and Planets

  • Nanodiamonds are close to molecular size, containing about 1800 carbon atoms.
  • Diamonds are more stable than graphite at very small sizes due to surface energy.
  • Nanodiamonds can be found alongside other forms of carbon like fullerenes.
  • Ureilites, carbon-rich meteorites, often contain diamonds formed by shock events.
  • Larger diamonds found in Almahata Sitta meteorite suggest a protoplanetary origin.
  • Infrared observations show that carbon-containing molecules are widespread in space.
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and diamondoids are found in space.
  • Dust in space may contain up to 10 quadrillion diamondoids per gram.
  • The interior of Uranus and Neptune may contain huge quantities of diamonds.
  • Extreme pressure can separate carbon from methane, allowing diamond formation.
  • Experimental results suggest diamond rain and convection in Neptune's interior.
  • Stars with high carbon-to-oxygen ratios may have planets composed mostly of carbides.
  • Silicon carbide is a rare mineral on Earth but could be common on carbon-rich planets.
  • Carbide planets may have different thermal properties than silicate planets.
  • PSR J1719-1438 b, a planet orbiting a pulsar, may be composed of dense carbides.
  • The thermal conductivity and expansivity of carbides differ from silicates.
  • Uranus and Neptune have been suggested to have an ice layer that could contain diamonds.
  • Methane in Neptune may be crushed into diamonds under high pressure.
  • Solid diamonds have been observed raining on Uranus and Neptune.
  • Experiments have concluded that diamonds can form in the atmosphere of Neptune.
  • Laser-compressed hydrocarbons at planetary interior conditions can lead to diamond formation.

Diamonds in Stars and Beyond

  • Diamonds have been proposed to exist in carbon-rich stars, particularly white dwarfs.
  • Carbonado, a polycrystalline mix of diamond, graphite, and amorphous carbon, is present in stars.
  • Diamonds in stars could come from supernovae and white dwarfs.
  • The white dwarf BPM 37093, located in the constellation Centaurus, may have a diamond core.
  • BPM 37093 is one of the largest diamonds in the universe.
  • A diamond planet that orbits a pulsar has been discovered.
  • Super-Earth planets have been found to have a mineralogy that includes diamonds.
  • The mineral moissanite, a form of silicon carbide, is considered a rock-forming material.
  • SiC (silicon carbide) has been studied for its thermal expansion properties in the deep interiors of carbide exoplanets.
  • The presence of diamonds on a super-Earth planet has been questioned and may not be accurate.

Diamond-like Glass and Other Diamond-related Discoveries

  • A diamond-like star has been created in the lab.
  • Diamond-like glass has properties similar to diamond.
  • It is made by compressing carbon-based materials.
  • This glass could have various applications in technology.
  • The creation of diamond-like glass helps in understanding diamond formation.
  • The Center for Astrophysics highlights the discovery of a massive diamond.
  • This diamond is the largest known in the galaxy.
  • It was found in a distant region of space.
  • The diamond's size and rarity make it a unique find.
  • This discovery adds to our understanding of diamonds beyond Earth.
  • Carbonado and Framesite are mysterious types of diamonds.
  • Their origins are still not fully understood.
  • Carbonado is believed to have formed in outer space.
  • Framesite is thought to have originated from meteorite impacts.
  • Scientists are studying these diamonds to uncover their unique formation processes.

Mineral Evolution and Co-evolution of Life and Rocks

  • Before the formation of the Solar System, a small number of minerals, including diamonds and olivine, were present.
  • Stars, rich in carbon, may have formed small diamonds at higher temperatures than any other known mineral.
  • The diversity of minerals has changed over time as conditions have changed.
  • The history of mineral formation was explored in a paper by Robert Hazen and colleagues at the Carnegie Institution.
  • The paper is titled 'Mineral evolution' and was published in 2008.
  • Rocks and minerals undergo evolutionary processes.
  • Mineral evolution is the study of these changes over time.
  • The Earth's environment and geological processes influence mineral evolution.
  • Understanding mineral evolution helps in predicting mineral occurrences.
  • This field of study provides insights into Earth's geological history.
  • Life and rocks on Earth may have co-evolved.
  • The presence of certain minerals influenced the development of life.
  • Rocks provided the necessary elements for life to thrive.
  • Life, in turn, affected the composition and formation of rocks.
  • The interaction between life and rocks is a complex and interconnected process.

Extraterrestrial diamonds Data Sources

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