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Article: Color


Color perception and vision

  • Color is based on the electromagnetic spectrum
  • Color perception is related to light absorption, reflection, emission spectra, and interference
  • Humans perceive colors in the visible light spectrum with three types of cone cells (trichromacy)
  • Animals may have a different number of cone cell types or different color sensitivity ranges
  • Animal perception of color is processed by the brain
  • Color vision deficiency causes a limited perception of colors
  • Different forms of color blindness result from cone cell anomalies
  • Cerebral achromatopsia is caused by neural anomalies in the brain
  • Metamerism occurs when colors appear the same to color blind individuals
  • Tetrachromacy is present in many vertebrates, allowing for enhanced color discrimination
  • Most mammals are dichromatic, while many non-mammals are tetrachromatic
  • Some invertebrates, like mantis shrimp, have even more cones for a richer color gamut
  • Human tetrachromacy is a debated topic, with some individuals potentially having four cone classes
  • Functional tetrachromats may be able to perceive up to a hundred million colors
  • Synesthesia can cause the perception of color in response to letters, numbers, or sounds
  • Behavioral and neuroimaging experiments support the reality of synesthetic color experiences
  • Synesthesia leads to changes in behavioral tasks and increased activation of color perception brain regions
  • Similarity between synesthetic color percepts and real color perception
  • Synesthesia provides a non-standard route to experiencing color
  • Photoreceptors become desensitized after exposure to strong light
  • Afterimages occur when the eye continues to see a bright figure after looking away from it
  • Afterimages appear in complementary colors
  • Afterimage effects have been used by artists, including Vincent van Gogh
  • Human eye compensates for limited color palettes by seeing gray or neutral colors as the missing color
  • Trichromatic theory is true when the visual system is in a fixed state of adaptation
  • Visual system constantly adapts to changes in the environment and compares colors to reduce the effects of illumination
  • Edwin H. Land studied color constancy and proposed the retinex theory
  • Chromatic adaptation and color appearance theories explain afterimage effects

Color properties and perception

  • Spectral colors are those produced by visible light of a single wavelength
  • Spectral colors have 100% purity and are fully saturated
  • The division of spectral colors into distinct categories is influenced by culture and history
  • The inclusion or exclusion of colors like indigo and cyan is a topic of debate
  • The intensity of a spectral color can alter its perception
  • The color of an object depends on how it absorbs and scatters light
  • Transparent objects are perceived as colorless because they allow light to transmit through
  • Opaque objects do not transmit light and instead absorb or reflect it
  • Translucent objects appear colored because they scatter or absorb specific wavelengths of light
  • Absorbed light in objects is often dissipated as heat
  • Color reproduction aims to create colors that faithfully represent the desired color for the human eye
  • Most colors are mixtures of various wavelengths of light, not spectral colors
  • Dominant wavelength is used to describe non-spectral colors
  • Metamers are different light spectra that have the same effect on the three color receptors in the human eye
  • Color reproduction methods or color spaces use three specific primary colors
  • Additive color mixing involves combining light of different colors
  • Red, green, and blue are the additive primary colors
  • Additive color systems are used in projectors, televisions, and computer terminals
  • Subtractive color mixing involves combining dyes, inks, pigments, or filters
  • Subtractive coloring absorbs some wavelengths of light and reflects others
  • The color displayed by a surface comes from the parts of the visible spectrum that are not absorbed
  • Subtractive coloring uses twelve main pigment colors
  • Pigments or inks subtract or absorb specific wavelengths of light to create different colors

Color terminology and research

  • Colors vary in hue, saturation, and brightness
  • Color words can be derived from objects or abstract concepts
  • Basic color terms follow a pattern of evolution and universality
  • Lists of colors and web colors exist for reference
  • Color technology and physics are studied in relation to color
  • Research on structural color has been conducted since Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke
  • Electron micrography has advanced the study of structural color
  • Color perception is influenced by the eye and brain
  • Specialized color modules exist in the macaque extrastriate cortex
  • Color preference is spatially clustered in certain areas of the brain

Cultural and symbolic meanings of color

  • Colors and their meanings play a role in art and literature
  • Color psychology studies the effects of color on human emotion and activity
  • Chromotherapy is an alternative medicine based on color
  • Colors have different associations in different countries and cultures
  • Red decreases cognitive functioning in men, according to a study
  • Colors can have different meanings and associations in different cultures
  • For example, in Western cultures, red is often associated with love and passion, while in some Eastern cultures, it symbolizes luck and prosperity
  • Colors can also have symbolic meanings, such as yellow representing happiness or blue symbolizing calmness
  • The use of color in branding and advertising can evoke certain emotions and associations in consumers
  • Different industries may use specific colors in their logos and designs
  • Colors have national associations and symbolism
  • Different colors have demonstrated effects on cognition
  • The combination of red and yellow can induce hunger
  • Color affects memory development
  • Wearing bright colors makes you more memorable to others

Development of color theories and studies

  • Theories of color vision have been developed throughout history
  • Newton identified light as the source of color sensation
  • Young proposed the trichromatic theory, which states that any color can be matched with a combination of three lights
  • Hering developed the opponent process theory

Color Data Sources

Reference URL
Knowledge Graph

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